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When Passive Is Better than Active



This Everyday Grammar is all about the passive voice.
The passive is a verb form in which the subject receives the action of the verb.
For example, "I was born on a Saturday."



Most sentences in English follow the subject-verb-object
pattern known as the active voice. For example, "I love you."
In this example the subject is "I," the verb is "love" and
the object is "you." The subject performs the action of the verb.



But sometimes the subject is acted upon, or receives
the action of the verb. This is called the passive voice. Imagine that someone
stole your wallet, but you do not know who did it. You could say, "My wallet
was stolen." In this passive sentence, "my wallet" is the subject,
"was stolen" is the verb. There is no direct object -- the wallet did
not steal itself. The speaker does not know who stole the wallet.



To form the passive, use a form of the verb
"be" followed by a past participle verb form. You can form the passive
in several verb tenses, but the simple present and simple past are the most common.



Only transitive verbs can be passive. Intransitive
verbs, or verbs that cannot take a direct object, cannot be passive. You cannot
say "I was arrived by train" because the intransitive verb arrive
cannot be followed by an object.



Most of the time, users should avoid the passive voice.
The passive voice can make the speaker or writer seem indirect and weak. Which would
you rather hear: "I love you" (active voice) or "You are loved
by me" (passive voice)? 



But there are several situations when you should
use the passive.



The most common reason to use the passive is when the actor
is unknown or unimportant. For example, "My visa was processed," and
"My shoes were made in India" and "The car was imported from Germany."
In these examples, it is not necessary to know exactly who performed the action.



Sometimes speakers use the passive even when they know
the person who did the action. In this case, use the word by followed by
the actor.



For example, "Great Expectations was written
by Charles Dickens." You could also use the active voice: "Charles Dickens
wrote Great Expectations." Both are correct. The passive voice emphasizes
the book; the active voice emphasizes the writer.



In informal speech, the verb "be" can be replaced
with the verb "get." For example, instead of saying "I was hit
by a car," you can say, "I got hit by a car." Listen to this famous
song by the Eurythmics. You will hear two active and two passive sentences.



Some
of them want to use you


Some of them want to get
used by you


Some of them want to abuse
you


Some of them want to
be abused



Notice how singer Annie Lennox used the passive with both
"get" and "be." 



Another reason to use the passive is to avoid naming
the person who performed an action. This is common in politics and law.



At times, powerful people want to admit to a mistake without
blaming specific people. In this case, they often use the passive phrase "mistakes
were made." Listen to a TV interview with President Obama. A reporter asked
the president about a report of abuses by the Central Intelligence Agency. Here
is how President Obama replied:



"Any fair-minded person looking at this would say
that some terrible mistakes were made."



And here is President George W. Bush using the same phrase.
A reporter asked him about the firing of some prosecutors.



"And he's right, mistakes were made. And Im frankly
not happy about them."



You might hear the passive voice in a courtroom. For legal
reasons, sometimes lawyers have to use the passive voice to avoid directly blaming
a suspect for a crime. Listen to this courtroom dialog from a popular TV drama The
Good Wife
. A prosecutor is accusing a person of killing a man named Wagner.



Prosecutor:
And how did he kill Wagner?


Defense attorney: Objection!

Prosecutor: Withdrawn.
How was Wagner killed?



Did you notice how the prosecutor switched his question
from the active to the passive voice? Listen one more time.



Prosecutor:
And how did he kill Wagner?


Defense attorney: Objection!

Prosecutor: Withdrawn.
How was Wagner killed?



At the beginning of the clip, the prosecutor asked,
"How did he kill Wagner?" The defense attorney objected to the question.
The prosecutor rephrased the question in the passive voice to avoid blaming the
suspect. He asked, "How was Wagner killed?"



Overusing the passive voice is major problem in student
writing, even for native speakers. Try to keep your passive sentences under 10 percent
of your total. Try converting some of your long sentences into simple subject-verb-object
sentences.



There is much more to learn about the passive, including
the stative passive and participle adjectives. We'll address those topics in a future
episode of Everyday Grammar. Until then, sweet dreams!



Sweet
dreams are made of this


Who would admire to disagree?

Ive traveled the world
and the seven seas


Everybody's looking
for something



 





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